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Citation Generator - APA 7: Examples previously unlisted

APA examples previously unlisted

Source In-text referencing examples Bibliography/Reference list examples
Translated book (Ylinen, 2008)

Ylinen, J. (2008). Stretching therapy: for sport and manual therapies of everyday life. (J. Nurmenniemi, Trans.). Churchill Livingstone.
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. (Translator First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Trans.). Publisher.

Brochure, pamphlet & fact sheet Southern Cross University, 2008
Southern Cross University. (2008). Copyright and you: A guide for staff. [Brochure]. Author.

Treat as you would a book. Indicate the type of publication in square brackets after the title, unless the publication type is included in the title. When the publisher is the same as the author, write 'Author' as the name of the publisher.

Reprinted book (from another source) (Newton, 1998/1999)

If the work is reprinted, give both publication dates in chronological order, separated by a slash (/).

Newton, W. (1999). Return to Mars. In C. Mari (Ed.), Space Exploration (pp. 32-41). H.W. Wilson. (Reprinted from National Geographic, pp. 2-26, August 1998).
Government publications (Queensland Health, 2005)
Queensland Health. (2005). Health Systems Review Final Report. Queensland Government.
Conference papers, symposia & meetings (Bohrer, Zielke, & Freiburg, 1995)

Capitalise names of symposia, conferences & meetings.

If there are more than two editors a comma is placed before the ampersand.

Bohrer, S., Zielke, T., & Freiburg, V. (1995). Integrated obstacle detection framework for intelligent cruise control on motorways. Paper presented at IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium. Detroit, MI: Piscataway.
Acts of Parliament Health Act 1985 Sex Discrimination Act 1984

When citing an Act of parliament give name and year of the act as they appear in the title. No author required.

With a number:
Health Act 1985, 6270 Parliament of Victoria (1995). 

Without a number:
Sex Discrimination Act 1984, Commonwealth of Australia (1994).

When one author refers to another (Secondary citation) Miller's study (as cited in Agrios, 2005) ...

Acknowledge both the primary and secondary source of information. Include the primary source first then insert "as cited in" before the secondary source.

Agrios, G.N. (2005). Plant pathology (5th ed.). Elsevier Academic Press.

In the list of references, cite only the source where you found the citation (i.e. Agrios, 2005), not the original source (e.g. Miller).
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial [of the source you read]. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Publisher.

Work by an organisation or institution (corporate author) A recent study (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], 2009) highlighted ...

If an organisation can be recognized by abbreviation, cite the name first time in full, followed immediately by its abbreviation in square brackets.

Use acronym/abbreviation in subsequent in-text reference/s: The AIHW (2009) found that...

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2009). Indigenous housing needs 2009: A multi-measure needs model, (AIHW cat. No. HOU 214).

Name of Organisation/Department/Agency. (Year). Title: Subtitle. (Report No. xxx {if available}). Publisher.

Figures: Online (include Artworks, Charts, Diagrams, Drawings, Graphs, Images, Paintings Photographs, Prints, Tables, etc)   If no artist name is available, use the first few words of the image title.

Artist/Author last name, First Initial. Second Initial. ( Year).Title of work [Type /. Retrieved from URL

Figures : Online - Mentioned, but not included in - text (Rose, 1994)...

(Tunbridge, 2003)

Rose, D. (1994). On the road to Oberon [Stencil Screenprint]. Retrieved from

Tunbridge, D. I. (2003). Volunteers of the ACT Bushfire Service lighting a back-burn on the Mount Franklin Road, Brindabella Ranges, on the night of 11/12 January 2003 [Digital photograph]. Retrieved from

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Figure title [Format]. Retrieved from URL

Figures : Online - Included in-text In the text of the essay, caption under the actual Figure:
Figure x. (Use a running number when including multiple figures, e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, etc)

Use a descriptive phrase that serves as title and description.

eg - Reprinted [or adapted] from Book title (page number), by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Year, Place of Publication: Publisher.

Copyright [Year] by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or adapted] with permission.

If you use a caption, there is no need to repeat this information in the end of Reference list/ Bibliography.
Personal communications. email, interview, telephone call or discussion list, unpublished lecture notes. Mr E. Robbins, stated that the ... (personal interview, 4 January 2007)


(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2007)

Information obtained by conversation, letter, interview, blog or email, without supporting data is referenced in the text only, NOT included in reference list.
Fact sheets, brochures and press releases online (Florek, 2003)

Or if no author: (Title, Year).

Florek, S. (2003). Megafauna extinction: Patterns of extinction [Factsheet]. Retrieved from

National Council of State Boards of Nursing. (n.d.). Professional boundaries [Brochure]. Retrieved from

Apple Inc. (2007). iPhone delivers up to eight hours of talk time [Press release]. Retrieved from


Indicate type of publication in square brackets after title, unless the publication type is included in title. When publisher is the same as a uthor, write 'Author' as name of publisher


Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of publication [Format]. Retrieved from URL of specific document
Message posted to a newsgroup, electronic mailing list or online forum (Blaire, 2007)
Blaire, T. (2007, January 20). Transition in leadership [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from the Politics and Government electronic mailing list:

Include the title of the message, and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board. Titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author's name is not available, provide the screen name. Place identifiers like post or message numbers, if available, in brackets.

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month Day {of post}). Title of message [Type of message]. Retrieved from Name of platform URL of specific message

Wiki (no author, no date) ("Happiness", n.d.)
Happiness. (n.d.). In Psychwiki. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from


With Blogs and Wikis, no retrieval date is needed unless the source material is likely to change over time.

Anyone can contribute to a Blog or a Wiki - - no evidence that information is reliable.

Title. ( Year, Month Day ; if not known, put n.d.). In Name of Wiki. Retrieved month day, year from URL of specific document
Music recording (Wienhorst, 1999)
Wienhorst, R. (1999). Sacred music [CD]. Arsis Audio.

Date should be the date of the performance, not mastering/recording date